Research articles

Bioidentical hormones versus synthetic hormones

The bioidentical hormone debate: are bioidenticals safer than synthetic hormones?

What's new in hormone replacement therapy: focus on transdermal estradiol and micronized progesterone

Breast cancer risk in relation to different types of hormone replacement therapy

Risk of breast cancer by type of hormone therapy

Unequal risks for breast cancer associated with different HRT

Body identical hormone replacement

Could transdermal estradiol + progesterone be a safer postmenopausal HRT? A review.

Natural hormone therapy for menopause

Natural progesterone and antihypertensive action

Natural progesterone versus medroxyprogesterone acetate in myocardial ischaemia

A comprehensive review of the safety and efficacy of bioidentical hormones for the management of menopause and related health risks

17beta oestradiol and natural progesterone for menopausal hormone therapy

Differential effects of progestogens on breast cancer cell lines.

Use of different postmenopausal hormone therapies and risk of histology- and hormone receptor-defined invasive breast cancer.

Progesterone receptor modulates ERa action in breast cancer

A Comprehensive review of the safety and efficacy of bioidentical hormones

Lower risk of cardiovascular events in postmenopausal women taking oral estradiol compared with oral conjugated equine estrogens.

Differential associations of oral estradiol and conjugated equine estrogen with hemostatic biomarkers.

Is the use of conjugated equine oestrogens in hormone replacement therapy still appropriate?

HDL cholesterol: a comparison between progestagens and natural progesterone

The benefits of tailoring the dose

The benefits in tailoring the dose and regimen of HRT

Effects of low-dose hormone therapy on menopausal symptoms, bone mineral density, endometrium, and the cardiovascular system: a review of randomized clinical trials.

 Oestrogen therapy and cardiovascular disease

Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy and cardiovascualr disease: the value of transdermal estradiol and micronized progesterone

Effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women

Postmenopausal oestrogen therapy and cardiovascular disease

The Protective effects of oestrogen on the cardiovascular system

Oestrogen therapy benefits the bones:

Osteoporotic vertebral fractures in hormone treated and untreated postmenopausal women

The effect of low doe oestradiol on bone turnover

Testosterone in women

Testosterone in women: the clinical significance

Testosterone in women with impaired sexual function after oophorectomy

Testosterone enhances oestradiol's effects on bone density and sexuality

Safety and efficacy of a testosterone metered-dose transdermal spray for treating decreased sexual satisfaction in premenopausal women: a randomized trial.

Transdermal testosterone improves mood, well being and sexual function in premenopausal women.

Efficacy of vaginally applied estrogen, testosterone, or polyacrylic acid on sexual function in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

A comparative study of the effects of local estrogen with or without local testosterone on vulvovaginal and sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women.

Testosterone therapy for sexual dysfunction

Effects of oestrogen versus oestrogen/testosterone therapy on body composition

Effects of testosterone on visuospatial function and verbal fluency in postmenopausal women: results from a functional magnetic resonance imaging pilot study.

Testosterone improves verbal learning and memory in postmenopausal women: Results from a pilot study.

Effect of 12-month dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy on bone, vagina, and endometrium in postmenopausal women.

DHEA on vulvovaginal atrophy

Update on the use of dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation among women with diminished ovarian function

Testosterone prevents cardiovascular disease

Testosterone and the cardiovascular system: a comprehensive review of the literature

Low serum testosterone and increased mortality in men with coronary heart disease

Low free testosterone and premature coronary artery disease

Low serum testosterone and atherosclerosis in men with type2 diabetes

Low testosterone levels associated with carotid atherosclerosis in men

Low free testosterone predicts mortality from cardiovascular disease

Acute anti-ischaemic effect of testosterone in men with coronary artery disease

Effects of testosterone on coronary vasomotor regulation in men with coronary heart disease.

Low-dose transdermal testosterone therapy improves angina threshold

Cardiovascular effects of testosterone: implications of the “male menopause"

Hypogonadism as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in men

Men with coronary artery disease have lower levels of androgens

Testosterone deficiency syndrome and the heart

Low testosterone linked to increased mortality

Low serum testosterone associated with increased mortality

Endogenous testosterone and mortality in men

Association between low testosterone and high blood pressure

Low circulating androgens and mortality risk in heart failure

Endogenous testosterone and mortality due to all causes

Acute anti-ischaemic effect of testosterone in men with coronary artery disease

Testosterone treatment and mortality in men with low testosterone levels

Endogenous Testosterone and Mortality Due to All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer in Men

Low serum testosterone levels are associated with increased risk of mortality in a population-based cohort of men aged 20–79

Erectile dysfunction linked to coronary heart disease:

Erectile dysfunction predicts coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes.

Testosterone and quality of life: 

Androgen Replacement Therapy in the Aging Male—A Critical Evaluation

Effects of testosterone on muscle strength, physical function, body composition, and quality of life

Low testosterone associated with insulin resistance:

Testosterone and glucose metabolism in men

Low testosterone  predicts the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in men

Testosterone and the development of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged men

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in type 2 diabetes and obesity

Androgen treatment of abdominally obese men

Testosterone replacement therapy lifts mood

Testosterone and depression: systematic review and meta-analysis

The limitations of measuring just the TSH 

Serum thyroid stimulating hormone in assessment of severity of tissue hypothyroidism in patients with overt primary thyroid failure: cross sectional survey

TSH may not be a good marker for adequate thyroid hormone replacement therapy

The risks of borderline low thyroid levels

Prevalence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism among Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and mortality: an estimate of relative and absolute excess all-cause mortality based on time-to-event data from cohort studies

Low-T3 Syndrome A Strong Prognostic Predictor of Death in Patients With Heart Disease

Thyroid Replacement Therapy and Heart Failure

Thyroid Function in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and in Diabetic Nephropathy

The association between TSH within the reference range and serum lipid concentrations in a population-based study. The HUNT Study.

The effect of L-thyroxine replacement therapy on lipid based cardiovascular risk in subclinical hypothyroidism

The Benefits of treating subclinical Hashimoto’s Disease 

Cardiac function in borderline hypothyroidism: a study by pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging 

Effects of Prophylactic Thyroid Hormone Replacement in Euthyroid Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

Alternatives to thyroxine

Improvements in quality of Life in Hypothyroid Patients taking Armour

Does synthetic thyroid extract work for everybody?

Conversion to Armour Thyroid from Levothyroxine Improved Patient Satisfaction in the Treatment of Hypothyroidism

Desiccated Thyroid Extract Compared With Levothyroxine in the Treatment of Hypothyroidism: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Study

Combination T4/T3 therapy results in greater patient satisfaction

Combination T4/T3 therapy results in greater patient satisfaction, improved symptoms and weight loss versus T4 alone

Combination treatment with T4 and T3: toward personalized replacement therapy in hypothyroidism?

Levothyroxine monotherapy cannot guarantee euthyroidism in all athyreotic patients

Only the combined treatment with thyroxine and triiodothyronine ensures euthyroidism in all tissues of the thyroidectomized rat

 New insights into the variable effectiveness of levothyroxine monotherapy for hypothyroidism

Safety review of liothyronine use: a 20 year observational follow up study

Gluten consumption linked to thyroid disease

Coeliac disease in Dutch patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and vice versa


Effects and side-effects of 2% progesterone cream on the skin of peri- and postmenopausal women: results from a double-blind, vehicle-controlled, randomized study.

Novel effects of diosgenin on skin aging.

Sex hormones save our skin: the vascular networking of estrogen.

Differential involvement of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta in the healing promoting effect of estrogen in human keratinocytes.

Changes in skin topography during hormone therapy.

17beta-estradiol regulates the secretion of TGF-beta by cultured human dermal fibroblasts.

Effect of estrogens on skin aging and the potential role of selective estrogen receptor modulators.

Estrogen and the skin

Effects of 17beta-estradiol on matrix metalloproteinase-1 synthesis by human dermal fibroblasts.